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Introduction

Attachment styles is a concept that goes deep into the human brain to discover how past relationships influence how they present themselves in future ones. The connection behavior system is a fundamental principle in attachment styles theory since it bridges the gap between ethological conceptions of human development and current understandings of emotion control and personalities. Theoretically, attachment styles, including anxious, avoidant, and secure, influence an individual’s adult relationships and are developed in childhood through interaction with primary caregivers.

Anxious Attachment Style

Anxious attachment is an insecure attachment style rooted in fear of abandonment and a feeling of not being valued and develops in children when their parents are inconsistent or emotionally insensitive. According to research, individuals with an anxious attachment style are susceptible to becoming obsessed and hypervigilant over a possible loss, and others may perceive them as demanding and clingy (Widom et al., 2018, p. 2). The fear of possible emotional disconnection is rooted in childhood if caregivers did not provide enough attention or were inconsistent with it, which leads to overcompensation in adulthood when a person tries to connect to their spouse as much as possible, even when it is not healthy for the relationship. People with an anxious attachment style, also known as preoccupied attachment disorder, are frequently concerned about being away from their partner and have a characteristic behavior of reassurance in their relationships. Therefore, attitudes and reactions to social occurrences developed in the framework of childhood relationships serve as a template for typically predictable developments of romantic connections in the adulthood of such individuals.

Exploring Attachment Styles in Relationships

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Avoidant Attachment Style

People manifesting an avoidant attachment style are often autonomous, self-sufficient, and uneasy with emotional, intimate relationships in adulthood. Research reveals that attachment avoidance measures how comfortable people depend on others, or otherwise, support and assurance, and people who are more avoidantly attached frequently engage in deactivation tactics that prevent them from obtaining support from their spouses (Campbell & Stanton, 2019, p. 148). When newborns encounter unfulfilled demands regularly, they develop avoidant attachment, which causes them to doubt their caregiver’s support. Thus, avoidant people keep their distance in relationships, even with spouses, since they rely on themselves, and acceptance and commitment to change are critical in dealing with the problem.

Secure Attachment Style

Individuals with a secure attachment style can feel willing to openly discuss their emotions and seek assistance when confronted with relationship troubles. For instance, studies have indicated that people with a secure attachment will likely seek instrumental and emotional assistance from close companions and experts, such as coaches and counselors (Green & Douglas, 2018, p. 7). People with secure attachment have a history of effective communication with accessible and receptive attachment figures, which improves the possibility of using security-based techniques to ease distress. Hence, a person with a secure attachment style displays low anxiety and low avoidance in a relationship and is ready to solve differences with a decent approach.

Conclusion

Attachment styles, including anxious, avoidant, and secure, shape adult relationships and are formed in childhood through interactions with primary caregivers. The styles influence adult relationships, specifically romantic or love life. From a broader perspective, attachment styles can also affect how people relate to others in various specialization fields.

References

Campbell, L., & Stanton, S. C. (2019). Adult attachment and trust in romantic relationships. Current Opinion in Psychology, 25, 148–151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2018.08.004

Green, R., & Douglas, K. M. (2018). Anxious attachment and belief in conspiracy theories. Personality and Individual Differences, 125, 1–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.12.023

Widom, C. S., Czaja, S. J., Kozakowski, S. S., & Chauhan, P. (2018). Does adult attachment style mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and mental and physical health outcomes? Child Abuse & Neglect, 76, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.05.002

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