We accept Apple Pay Google Pay Quick and secure payment options.
Available 24/7
Essay in 3 Steps!

The Turabian citation or Chicago format is a referencing style typical in humanities. Basically, the primary purpose of the Turabian referencing style is to help avoid plagiarism by following specific rules. For instance, when people use evidence from other studies, they must cite it in their papers. In this case, this technique provides two methods for acknowledging sources used in writing. In particular, the Turabian citation requires people to either use the author-date format, footnotes, and a bibliography.

Author-Date Format

The Turabian citation or Chicago style requires authors to use author-date format when acknowledging sources in physical, natural, and social sciences. For instance, the in-text citations should have the author-date format. Along these lines, the in-text citation should contain the surname of the author, date of publication and pagination. Besides, the details should appear inside brackets. In turn, some rules of the Turabian format guide the formatting of author-date in-text citations. Firstly, a comma should sperate the year of publication and the pagination. Secondly, one should not put a comma between the surname and year of publication. Finally, a person should use the word “and” for sources with two authors. Thus, the Turabian citation provides an option to use parenthetical citations in the form of author-date to acknowledge borrowed information.

Turabian citation

Footnotes in Turabian Citation

The Turabian citation or Chicago style format provides an option for writers to use footnotes for in-text citations. For instance, a writer should use footnotes that correspond to superscripts for in-text citations. In this case, one should place a superscript after the sentence with quoted information. The superscript should appear after the full stop. Basically, the names of authors in the footnote should not have an inverted form for sources that appear for the first time. For example, a footnote should start with the first name of the author. Besides, if it appears a second time, it should begin with the surname. All notes must identify the exact location of the cited information. Hence, one must include the page number in the footnotes. Also, a person must consist of the paragraph for online sources like websites. Thus, the Turabian citation allows writers with an option to use footnotes.


The Turabian citation or Chicago style citation must include a bibliography. As a rule, the bibliography is the last section of an academic paper formatted in Turabian and lists all cited sources. The listing follows the alphabetical order of the principal author’s last name. In some cases, the bibliography should list sources in chronological order. In this case, a writer should list sources starting with the most recent ones. This case applies to sources written by one author at different times. Besides, the bibliography of the source must contain enough details to identify sources. For example, one must include the title of the source and year of publication. The title of the source must be in title case where only conjunctions and subordinate clauses should start with a small letter. Thus, the Turabian citation requires a bibliographic page with sufficient details identifying sources quoted.

Conclusion on Turabian Citation

In conclusion, the Turabian citation includes two options to cite sources. Firstly, writers have the option of using author-date or footnotes. In author-date format, one must give the surname and date of publication. Besides, the citation should include the page containing quoted information. The footnote format requires writers to use superscripts for in-text citations. Finally, the Turabian citation needs all papers to have a bibliography page that lists all sources in alphabetical or chronological order.

To Learn More, Read Relevant Articles