How to Cite a Website With No Author in APA 7: Tips and Examples

Websites have become popular sources of information for students and researchers by considering the rule of the APA 7th edition format. In this case, websites carry tons of data, including texts, images, and videos that writers can use as evidence. According to academic writing standards, when students gather evidence from websites, they must cite it appropriately not only in the References page but also within in-text citations by considering their essays and research papers. However, some sites lack essential credentials for citation entries for the APA format. In summary, when citing a website with no author in APA 7, a student should write the name of the site and the URL. Moreover, when a site lacks a publication date, scholars should use n.d., and, when there is no known author, they should use a shortened version of the title and enclose it within quotation marks. In turn, if there is no title, authors should use a short description of the article and enclose it within square brackets.

General Guidelines of Citing a Website With No Author in APA 7

The Internet is a platform that allows individuals and organizations to display texts, images, and videos, all of which are popularly known as content. However, to do so, they have to create a website that serves as their online shops. In other words, websites help individuals and organizations to inform others, such as customers and researchers, about what they offer (products, services, and knowledge). For organizations, a website is an online face – the platform that fosters interaction with the entity. Ideally, a website has several online pages known as webpages that carry essential information about an individual or organization. Therefore, a website can be defined as a central, online platform composed of web pages. In turn, a web browser enables an individual to navigate through this platform.

How to cite a website with no author in APA

Types of Websites

Given that individuals and organizations use websites to facilitate interaction with the world, the Internet is home to billions of websites today. As a result, these websites fall into different categories, such as:

  • Blogs
  • E-commerce website.
  • Gaming website.
  • Business/corporate website.
  • Content website.
  • Dating website.
  • Government websites.

Finding the Needed Citation Information

When writing academic texts in APA 7, such as theses and dissertations, students cite websites in this format to find evidence to back their claims and arguments. Occasionally, it is challenging to find the information they need to enter reference citations in some websites. Basically, one of the reasons for this challenge is that anyone can post content on a website without needing to indicate the date, their name, or even the title of their content. In turn, this information is necessary for an APA website reference citation.

How to Cite a Website Without a Date of Publication

One of the features of citing a website in APA 7 for any web-based content is the date of publication. Basically, the time when it is published allows readers to know how old the content is and whether it passes the test of being the most recent information. In academic writing, instructors insist on using the most recent information as the basis of a writer’s argument. Therefore, if web-based content lacks a date of publication, students should substitute the year with the initials n.d., which indicates “no date.”

An example of such a website citation in APA 7 is as follows:

  • Culbertson, H. (n.d.). Conflict management strategies and styles. Southern Nazarene University. Retrieved from http://home.snu.edu/~hculbert/conflict.htm

The APA in-text citation for a website without a date of publication should be:

  • (Culbertson, n.d.), or
  • Culbertson (n.d.) states that conflict management is an essential skill of effective leadership.

How to Cite a Website Without Known Author in APA 7

Sometimes, web-based content may lack an author, whether an individual or corporation. For example, when there is no individual author, a writer uses the name of the organization instead. By considering the APA citation, when both are missing, students should use the title of the content – book, article, or document – as the author.

An example of the APA citation of a web-based article without a known individual author is as follows:

  • Science, social science, and sociology. (2015). Open Textbooks for Hong Kong. Retrieved from http://www.opentextbooks.org.hk/ditatopic/28717

The in-text citation for the APA citation of a website with no author should be:

  • (“Science, Social Science, and Sociology,” 2015), or
  • According to the article “Science, Social Science, and Sociology” (2015), social science…

If there is no known date, the APA citation of a website article with no author should be:

  • Bachelor of science in nursing. (n.d.). College of Nursing. Retrieved from https://sc.edu/study/colleges_schools/nursing/academic_programs/bs_nursing/

Examples of the APA in-text citation with no author and no date are:

  • (“Bachelor of Science in Nursing,” n.d.), or
  • According to the article “Bachelor of Science in Nursing” (n.d.), pursuing a nursing graduate degree is …

How to Cite a Website Without a Title of an Article

When students cite web-based content as a source of evidence in APA 7, they should use a description of the content – book or article – as the title in italics.

The scheme of an APA reference citation for a website with no title of an article should be:

  • Author’s Last Name, First and Middle Names’ initials. (Publication Year, Month Day). Description of document. Website Title. Retrieved from URL.

An example is as follows:

  • Worland, J. (2015, July 27). Flood risk in the US. Times. Retrieved from http://time.com/3973256/flooding-risk-coastal-cities/

The APA in-text citation should be:

  • The US is experiencing severe weather in recent times, with floods estimated to have cost the country billions in infrastructural damage (Worland, 2015), or
  • In a Times news article, Worland (2015) calls on the federal government…

How to Cite a Website Without a Date of Publication and Known Author in APA 7

When a writer uses web-based content with no known author or publication date in APA 7, they should use the format described above for content without a known author and content without a publication date. In short, they should use the title as the author and the initials n.d. for the date.

Scheme sample for the APA website citation with no date and no author:

  • Article title. (n.d.). Website Title. Retrieved from URL

An example of citing an organization in the APA website citation is as follows:

  • Bachelor of science in nursing. (n.d.). College of Nursing. Retrieved from https://sc.edu/study/colleges_schools/nursing/academic_programs/bs_nursing/

APA in-text citation samples of a website with no date and no author are:

  • Nursing education is fundamental to quality health care delivery (“Bachelor of Science in Nursing,” n.d.), or
  • The article “Bachelor of Science in Nursing” (n.d.) describes nursing education…

How to Cite a Website Without a Date of Publication and Title in APA 7

When students cite web-based content without publication date and title in APA 7, they should use the format of the content without publication date and content without a title, as described above.

Format of the reference citation should is:

  • Organization Title/Author names. (n.d.). Description of the article. Website Title. Retrieved from URL.

An example is as follows:

  • US Congress. (n.d.). Health insurance tax relief act of 2018. TrackBill. Retrieved from https://trackbill.com/bill/us-congress-senate-bill-3063-health-insurance-tax-relief-act-of-2018/1595041/

Example of APA in-text citations for a website with no date and no title should be:

  • The 2018 Health Insurance Tax Relief Act has undergone critical stages, indicating that Congress may pass it before the year closes (“US Congress,” n.d.), or
  • The article by “US Congress” (n.d.) highlights the progress made in the enactment of a seemingly controversial law.

How to Cite a Website Without a Title and Known Author

When students cite a website content without a known author or title in APA 7, the APA reference citation should capture the content without any author and content without a title.

Structure of the reference citation for APA 7 should be:

  • Shortened title. (Year, Month Day). Website Title. Retrieved from URL

Example of a website reference with no title and no author is:

  • Legislation. (2019). Gardner Senate. Retrieved from https://www.gardner.senate.gov/newsroom/press-releases/gardner-shaheen-barrasso-jones-scott-sinema-introduce-legislation-to-delay-obamacare-tax-for-two-years

Examples of in-text should with no title and no author are:

  • The political class considers delaying the Obamacare Tax to pave the way for bipartisan consultation (“Legislation,” 2019), or
  • In the article “Legislation” (2019), the US Senate…

How to Cite a Website Without a Title, Date of Publication, and Known Author

When scholars cite web-based content without a known author, date of publication, and title in APA 7, they should use entries described above.

The APA reference citation sample for a website with no title, no date, and no author should be:

  • Shortened title. (n.d.). Website Title. Retrieved from URL

An example would be:

  • Legislation. (n.d.). Garnder Senate. Retrieved from https://www.gardner.senate.gov/newsroom/press-releases/gardner-shaheen-barrasso-jones-scott-sinema-introduce-legislation-to-delay-obamacare-tax-for-two-years

Note: The above example assumes the content had no date of publication.

The in-text citation should be:

  • A lack of bipartisanship in the Senate threatens to derail Obamacare Tax (“Legislation,” n.d.), or
  • The article “Legislation” (n.d.) provides the dynamics surrounding the passage of Obamacare Tax.

Summing Up on How to Cite a Website With No Author in APA 7

When writing academic texts, students and researchers rely on web-based content to back up their arguments. Basically, this content includes articles, books, and videos, among others. Hence, some essential tips that students and researchers must master include:

  • Put the title of the article in italics.
  • Indicate the website name (without italics).
  • Put a period after the website name, followed by the phrase “Retrieved from” and URL.
  • When there is no date of publication, use the initials “n.d.”
  • If there is no known author, use the title of the online article as the author in italics.
  • If there is no title, use a short description of the article as the title in italics.