Lecturers prepare their notes, which contain information prepared that can provide explanations to a target audience. Basically, lecture presentations include credible information, which makes them suitable for referencing in the APA format. In this case, scholars must identify the relevant bibliographic information if they want to learn how to cite lecture notes in APA. For example, such details include the person who prepared the speech, the title, and the year of creation. In turn, online lecture notes and slides should contain the necessary link. Besides, the key elements of such references include the name of the author, title and subtitle, institution, course code, and the URL link. Then, writers should identify contributors by using surname and initials. Besides, the title of the presentation should appear in sentence case. In some instances, one may use personal presentations. As a result, their entries should contain the phrase “personal communication” and should appear in the text.
General Guidelines on Citing Lecture Notes in APA
Lecture notes refer to the information prepared by an individual for providing a discourse before an audience. Basically, tutors and instructors provide lecture notes intending to pass knowledge or elucidate various concepts. Citing lecture notes in APA contains credible information that one may use for a scholarly citation. In this case, one must identify the relevant bibliographic information when citing a lecture. Moreover, such details include the name of the person who prepared the conference, the title, and the year of creation. Then, one should identify the relevant institution and its location, website, and URL link. In turn, such details vary depending on the type of lecture notes.
1. Print Form
Lectures notes available in print form should contain adequate bibliographic details that identify the relevant institution. In this case, scholars must identify the author, title, year, and institution’s name and location. Also, identifying such information makes sources credible for scholarly use. In turn, such details may not be available in online lectures.
2. Online Presentation
Online lecture notes and PowerPoint slides should contain the necessary link. In this case, reference elements include the name of the author, title and subtitle, institution, course code, and the URL link. Basically, such details make the citation credible for scholarly use. In turn, the URL allows readers to locate lecture notes for further reading.
Citing Parts of Lecture Notes in APA
1. Known Authors
The citation for citing lecture notes and slides in APA should contain the name of the author. For instance, one or more persons may prepare lecture notes. Basically, writers must identify all the authors identified in lecture notes. In this case, a correct citation begins with the instructor’s surname, followed by initials of other names. Moreover, these initials should track a specific order as per the rules provided for the APA referencing style. For example, writers should start with the first name’s initial, followed by the middle one. Also, a period should follow each initial used. In turn, this order should follow for all the authors of lecture notes. Hence, the APA reference format for lecture notes should identify the author’s last name, followed by initials.
2. Unknown Authors
The reference of lecture notes and slides that lack authors should identify the institution responsible. For instance, some instructors do not provide their names. In such cases, students should recognize the name of the institution in full. Moreover, writers citing lecture notes in APA should not use initials when identifying the institution responsible for the presentation. In turn, the name should also appear in the title case where the first letter of each word must appear as capital. Hence, one should use the name of the institution responsible where the author remains unidentified.
3. Anonymous Authors
A writer should exclude the name of the author or institution when such details remain anonymous. For instance, some lecture notes may not contain the identity details of the creators. In such cases, authors using the APA citation for lecture notes should not create identity details. Also, one must focus on using the most accurate information to identify the lecture notes or slides. Hence, one should consider omitting the name of the author or institution when not provided.
4. Citing Lecture Notes by an Organization in APA
Lecture presentations created by corporates should identify the specific group. For instance, one should recognize the group responsible for creating the presentation. In this case, the organization’s full name should appear in place of the creator’s name. Hence, lecture presentations created by institutions should include full names for identity purposes.
5. Personal Communication
The bibliographic entry of a lecture that takes the form of personal communication should entail accurate details that allow readers to identify their format. For instance, personal communication essays contain information that a reader cannot retrieve directly. In this case, common types include lecture presentations that may appear as a phone conversation and text or social media messages. Moreover, one should consist of the phrase “Personal communication” when citing lecture notes in APA to allow readers to identify the source’s nature.
Bibliographic entries of the lecture presented in a symposium should have the names of all contributors. For instance, different people take part in preparing seminars or conference presentations. In practice, one should use the surname followed by the initials.
7. Year of Creation
The citation for lecture notes in APA should contain the year created. For instance, instructors include the year they created the presentation in the first or last slide. When developing a reference entry, the year should follow the name of the tutor or relevant institution. In practice, the year should appear in brackets.
8. Title of the Presentation
The title of the lecture should follow the year of publication. For instance, one should provide the full title of the lecture presentation considered, which should appear in italics. Besides, one should write the title using sentence case. In this case, the first word in the title and those that follow colons should begin with a capital letter. Then, words that follow a colon should start with a capital letter in the title of the presentation. Moreover, the title of lecture presentations used in conferences should contain a brief description. For example, one should include the explanation inside square brackets. Basically, this information allows readers to have a better understanding of the contribution. Hence, one should consist of a description of the title where necessary.
9. Type of Presentation
The bibliographic entry of a personal presentation should indicate the type of the file. For example, one should state if the material cited in APA is lecture notes or PowerPoint slides. Basically, this information should appear in square brackets. Also, these details should follow the title of the personal presentation. In turn, one should not include any punctuation between the title and the square brackets. However, a period should follow the type of performance.
One should include the name of the publisher of the personal presentation. Lecture notes are the most common types of individual submissions. In this case, one should state the lecturer’s institution. In other instances, one should specify the publisher of the exhibition. Hence, a writer should consider presenting these details as the last ones in the bibliographic entry when citing lecture notes in APA.
Citing Electronic Lecture Notes in APA
The bibliographic entry of an online presentation resembles that of a personal exhibition. For instance, one should include the name of the speaker’s last name followed by initials. Then, the year of the creation of the presentation should appear after the identity of the creator. Also, the title should appear in sentence case. In turn, an individual may omit the title of the lecture if it resembles the title. However, one should include the type of presentation, name of the site, and URL. Hence, an online lecture’s bibliographic entry should contain the name of the website and the relevant URL by considering how to cite lecture notes in APA correctly.
1. Type of Online Presentation
One can find online presentations in different forms when citing them as credible sources. For instance, these sources may exist as videos or PowerPoint presentations. In this case, one must specify the type of performance used as the scholarly source. Then, writers should use the phrase “Video” when citing motion pictures and “PowerPoint slides” for personal communication available online. Also, this information should appear in square brackets after the title. Hence, one must identify the specific type of lecture presentation when preparing the bibliographic entry.
2. Name of the Site
Credible bibliographic entries of an online presence should contain the site’s name where an interested person can find the source. For instance, one may find a video from the TED talks or YouTube. In this case, writers should state this information when preparing a bibliographic entry. Moreover, this information should follow the type of presentation and must appear between two periods. Therefore, one should include the website’s name in the bibliographic entry of an online lecture presentation. Then, one must take precautions when citing TED Talk lecture notes in APA available on YouTube. For instance, most people face challenges when deciding the type of sources for TED talks available on YouTube. In such cases, one should identify the source as TED and not YouTube. However, the URL should lead readers to the YouTube page, where one can find the presentation. As a result, credible bibliographic entries for TED videos available on YouTube should contain accurate identification of the source.
The bibliographic entry of an online lecture must contain the appropriate URL. For instance, the URL should be the last item in the bibliographic entry of the source. In this case, the URL provided for the presentation should begin with “https://.” Besides, one must remember to give a valid Internet link to the source cited. Hence, credible citations for online lectures should contain a correct URL.
A Scheme on How to Cite a Lecture Note in APA
APA referencing style requires one to identify the sources accurately to enhance the credibility of the scholarly. In this case, one must identify the type of lecture considered before preparing the citation. Hence, the following are the schemes of possible types of lecture notes that a scholar may come across.
1. Video Lecture Presentation:
For a video lecture available at TED talk, one should use the following template when making a bibliographic entry:
- Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date). Title of talk [VideoVideo]. TED. URL
The case above shows a TED video lecture presentation with one author. Basically, initials of the first and middle names should follow the surname. In turn, if the video has more than one creator, the entry should appear as:
- Author, A. A., Author, B. B. (Year, Month Date). Title of talk [VideoVideo]. TED. URL
The scholar should provide the surnames of all the presentation creators together with their initials. In some instances, videos may not have the name of the creator. Moreover, one should include the title of the lecture before the date when citing lecture notes in APA. Hence, the following is the template that one should use for the citation.
- Title of talk. [VideoVideo]. TED. URL
One may find lecture videos on YouTube or other streaming services. The entry of such videos should contain the name of the service. In this case, the following is the template that one may use to prepare the required entry for the source.
- Last Name, A. A. [Username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of video [Video]. Streaming Service. URL
From the example above, the username should identify the creator of the video. In practice, this item should follow the first-last name order. Video lectures created by institutions should follow this template.
- Name of Institution. (Year, Month Date). Title of video [Video]. Streaming Service. URL
2. Citing PowerPoint Lecture Notes in APA:
PowerPoint presentations exist in the form of a slide. In most cases, one can find them from lecturers or websites. In this case, the bibliographic entry must identify the exact location of the source to follow the rules on how to cite lecture notes in APA. Hence, the following is the template that one should follow.
- Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of presentation [Lecture notes or PowerPoint slides, among other types]. Publisher.
One must specify the type of lecture presentation after the title. Basically, the bibliographic entry of lecturers found online should contain the URL.
- Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of presentation [Lecture notes, PowerPoint slides, etc.]. Publisher. URL.
3. Personal Presentation
One can site any communication made by the lecturer through emails, text messages, or social media using the following template.
- (A. Surname, personal communication, Month Day, Year).
The letter “A” represents the initial of the first name of the author. This type of referencing should appear in the body of text and not in the reference list.
4. Lecture Presentations in Conferences
Lecture presentations for conferences focus on a broad audience when compared to the classroom setting. In this case, one should use the following template to create the bibliographic entry.
- Creator, A. A., Creator, B. B., Creator, C. C., & Creator, D. D. (Year, Month Day). Title of presentation [Description of the performance]. Title of Symposium/Conference, Location.
Summing Up on How to Cite Lecture Notes in APA Properly
Lecture notes contain information prepared by an individual to provide explanations to a target audience. Basically, tutors and instructors develop lecture presentations using credible information, which makes them suitable for referencing. In this case, scholars must identify the relevant bibliographic information when citing a lecture. Moreover, such details include the name of the person who prepared the talk, the title, and the year of creation. In some instances, one may use presentations found on different websites. Also, writers should identify the site and a valid URL. As a result, the following are some tips that can guide a writer in creating suitable citations for lecture notes and presentations in APA:
- One must identify the contributors using surname and initials.
- The title of the presentation should appear in sentence case. The first word in the title must begin with a capital letter.
- Personal presentations should appear in the text’s body and should have the phrase “personal communication.”
- Bibliographic entries for lectures presented in symposiums should contain all contributors’ names and a description of the title.