A hypothesis refers to a statement that predicts the findings of a research study. Basically, researchers develop propositions to provide tentative answers to research questions that address different aspects of the research question. In this case, a scholar must use existing theories and knowledge to create an assumption. Besides, a researcher focuses on testing supposed claims through different methods, like experiments, observations, and statistical analysis of the data. In practice, the findings from a study can either support or refute a hypothesis. Then, when writing a suggestion, scholars should conduct adequate research on the topic, brainstorm for ideas, draft a hypothesis, revise a draft supposition, and write a final claim in a simple language. Also, these steps lead to the development of accurate and precise proposition that identifies relationships between independent and dependent variables. In practice, one should rely on a cause and effect theory when developing a hypothesis.
General Aspects of Writing a Hypothesis
A hypothesis means a sentence as a statement that gives the prediction about the findings of a research study. Basically, researchers make a hypothesis, which acts as a tentative answer to the research question. In this case, a proposition lacks scientific or scholarly proof. Then, a reasonable hypothesis must address different aspects of the research question. In turn, researchers must base a proposition on existing theories and knowledge. Besides, it has to testable through various methods, like experiments, observations, and statistical analysis. In practice, the findings from a study can either support or refute a working hypothesis. Therefore, a hypothesis refers to a statement that tries to predict the results of a survey.
Independent and Dependent Variables
A hypothesis in some studies must contain independent and dependent variables. For example. experimental and correlational research examines relationships between two or more variables. In turn, independent variables refer to factors that researchers can control or change. Besides, a dependent variable refers to factors that scholars observe or measure. Then, a hypothesis of experimental and correlational studies must predict relationships between dependent and independent variables. Moreover, such predictions should not be guesses but should contain evidence from research studies.
Types of a Hypothesis
There are different types of hypotheses that researchers can develop in their studies. In this case, the following are the common types of hypotheses:
- A simple hypothesis refers to predictions of relationships between independent and dependent variables.
- A complex hypothesis predicts relationships between two or more independent and dependent variables.
- An empirical hypothesis is a working prediction that exists when a researcher tests a theory by using observations and experiments. Basically, this type of hypothesis goes through some trial and error methods to obtain the necessary findings. In some instances, researchers may change some variables around other variables.
- A null hypothesis, denoted as H0, exists when a researcher believes that a relationship does not exist between independent and dependent variables. Basically, this hypothesis may exist when a researcher lacks adequate information to make a scientific prediction. Besides, inferences made from the findings attempt to disapprove or discredit a null hypothesis.
- An alternative hypothesis, denoted as H1, attempts to disapprove a null hypothesis. In this case, researchers attempt to discover or affirm an alternative proposition.
- A logical hypothesis refers to a proposed explanation of a concept that contains limited evidence. In practice, investigators intend to turn a reasonable assumption into an empirical claim. Also, researchers put theories or postulate it to the test.
- A statistical hypothesis is a claim related to studies that examine a section of the population. In this case, researchers identify a sample population and study their behaviors related to the research question.
Crafting a Hypothesis
Researchers should focus on developing reasonable hypotheses for their studies. For example, one should consider different factors that relate to existing studies or theories. In this case, some predictions should pertain to research data and provide tentative answers to research questions. Hence, the following are the essential steps that a researcher should consider when developing a hypothesis.
Step 1. Researching
The first step in developing a hypothesis is to research and gather details related to the intended topic. Basically, researching allows a scholar to gain more knowledge concerning issues and factors and how do variables change. Besides, this step will enable researchers to become familiar with the expected results. As a result, it influences a relevant hypothesis’s development.
Step 2. Asking Questions
A researcher should develop research questions before developing a hypothesis. For instance, investigators should create scientific questions that relate to the study and identified variables. In this case, brainstorming enhances the ability to determine relationships between independent and dependent variables. Basically, successful scholars remain focused on one cause and effect theory to ensure that they develop accurate ideas for a hypothesis. Therefore, the second step in developing a proposition is to brainstorm questions that reveal the relationship between independent and dependent variables.
Step 3. Use Clear Language
Scholars should use simple and clear language when developing a hypothesis for a study. For instance, one should draft concise predictions that answer developed research questions. In practice, one should write a hypothesis in a form that proposes that an action leads to a specific result. Moreover, a researcher should not state a supposition as a question but an affirmative statement that predicts outcomes from a particular course of action. Therefore, the third step in developing a hypothesis involves selecting a simple language for drafting scientific predictions.
Step 4. Revising a Hypothesis
A scholar should revise a draft hypothesis to ensure that it makes a testable thesis through research and experimentation. For instance, a researcher should review a prediction to ensure that it captures relationships between at least two variables. Hence, a scholar must revise a drafted hypothesis to ensure that it captures a testable relationship between independent and dependent variables.
Examples of a Hypothesis
- Research question – How does divorce affect sociological development among young children?
- H0 – Challenges that lead to divorce hurt young children’s social development, which affects their ability to interact with other people.
- H1 – Most children manage to cope with domestic challenges that lead to divorce, enabling them to realize healthy sociological development.
- Research question – How did tenebrism influence baroque art during the 16th and 17th centuries?
- H0 – The origin of tenebrism had a positive impact on the dynamic appearance of baroque art.
- H1 – Baroque art emerged as a unique art that did not have any form of external influence.
- Research question – To what extent does geological activity affect the Earth?
- H0 – The movement of tectonic plates beneath the Earth’s surface results in volcanic eruptions and faults that lead to mountains and lift valleys.
- H1 – Mountains and valleys are natural features with little connection with geological activities like the movement of tectonic plates beneath the Earth’s surface.
4. Philosophy Hypothesis
- Research question – Do animals have rights and welfares in society?
- H0 – Wild and domestic animals are living creatures with a right to care and protection by the humans.
- H1 – Wild and domestic animals are subordinate to a human, which implies that they do not have a right to care and protection.
- Research question – Does the consumption of genetically modified plants cause health complications to humans?
- H0 – Genetically modified foods are safe for human consumption and do not pose any possible health risks.
- H1 – Genetically modified foods interfere with healthy cell development, which leads to health complications.
4. Indigenous Studies
- Research question – What role does culture play among the indigenous communities?
- H0 – Cultural practices among the aboriginals promote their identity and contribute to the members’ overall well-being.
- H1 – cultural practices among the aboriginals do not significantly contribute to the quality of their lives.
- Research question – Does fascism exist in the twenty-first century?
- H0 – The established forms of democracy in the twenty-first century do not allow political leaders to implement all the fascism elements.
- H1 – Some political leaders in the twenty-first century adopt radical policies that promote the existence of fascism.
- Research question – Do neutrons have mass?
- H0 – Neutrons are small particles that have masses.
- H1 – Neutrons are small particles whose weight remains insignificant.
7. Health Studies
- Research question – How does evidence-based treatment approaches enhance the quality of the treatments?
- H0 – Evidence-based treatment methods allow doctors to gather adequate and accurate information about the patient, which helps tailor treatment and care approaches to meet the patient’s needs.
- H1 – Evidence-based approaches do not enhance the quality of the treatments since they lead to inconsistency in the care and medications given to a patient.
8. Environmental Studies
- Research question – To what extent do human activities contribute to global warming?
- H0 – Most human activities release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, which results in the rise of average temperatures.
- H1 – Most human activities release insignificant amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, contributing to global warming.
Summing Up on How to Write a Good Scientific Hypothesis in a Research Paper
A hypothesis gives a prediction about the findings of a research study. Basically, researchers develop hypotheses to provide a tentative answer to research questions. In turn, some of the factors that one must consider when writing a hypothesis include:
- conduct adequate research on the topic;
- brainstorm for ideas;
- draft a hypothesis;
- revise a draft proposition;
- write a final hypothesis in a simple language.