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How to Write a Critical Response Essay With Examples and Tips

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Dr. Simon Robbins
  • Icon Calendar 8 June 2024
  • Icon Page 5830 words
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A critical response essay is an important type of academic essay, which instructors employ to gauge the students’ ability to read, react, and respond critically and express their opinions. Firstly, this guide begins with a detailed definition of a critical response paper and an extensive walkthrough of source analysis and its format. Next, the manual breaks down the writing process into the pre-writing, writing, and post-writing stages and discusses each stage in extensive detail. Finally, the article provides practical examples of an outline and a paper itself, which implement the writing strategies and guidelines of critical response writing. After the examples provided, there is a brief overview of documentation styles for people to use in their papers. Hence, students need to learn how to write a perfect critical response essay to follow its criteria.

What Is a Critical Response Essay and Its Purpose

According to its definition, a critical response essay presents a writer’s reaction to the content of an article, text, book, story, film, artwork, play, performance, or any other piece of writing and the author’s strategy for achieving his or her intended purpose. Basically, this type of paper goes beyond mere summary and response, requiring the writer to engage deeply with the material to assess its merits and shortcomings (Wallace & Wray, 2021). The main purpose of writing a critical response essay is to develop a reasoned argument that expresses the writer’s analysis and critique. Moreover, a critical response to a piece of any text under review demands an analysis, interpretation, and synthesis of a reading (Ogbonnaya & Brown, 2023). These parts allow readers to develop their personal positions and reactions concerning the extent to which an author of a specific work creates a desired effect on the audience, establishing it implicitly or explicitly at the beginning. Mostly, students assume that a critical reaction revolves around the identification of flaws, but this aspect only represents one dimension of writing (Davies, 2022). In turn, a critical response in an essay should identify both the strengths and weaknesses of the work under analysis and present them without exaggerating their significance.

Source Analysis

How to write a critical response essay

1. Questions That Guide Source Analysis

Writers engage in textual analysis through critical reading. Hence, students undertake this reading to answer three primary questions:

  1. What does the author say or show unequivocally?
  2. What does the author not say or show outright but implies intentionally or unintentionally in the text?
  3. What do I think about responses to the previous two questions?

Readers should strive to comprehensively answer these questions with the context and scope of a critical response essay. Basically, the need for objectivity is necessary to ensure the student’s analysis does not contain any biases through unwarranted or incorrect comparisons (Ogbonnaya & Brown, 2023). Nonetheless, the author’s pre-existing knowledge concerning the topic is crucial in facilitating the process of critical reading. In turn, the generation of answers to three guiding questions occurs concurrently throughout the close reading of an assigned text or other topics.

2. Techniques of Critical Reading

Previewing, reading, and summarizing are the main methods of critical reading. Basically, previewing a text allows readers to develop some familiarity with the content of any paper, which they gain through exposure to content cues, publication facts, important statements, and authors’ backgrounds (Fort, 1971). In this case, readers may take notes of questions that emerge in their minds and possible biases related to prior knowledge. Then, reading has two distinct stages: first reading, rereading, and annotating. In this case, students read an assigned text at an appropriate speed for the first time with minimal notetaking. After that, learners reread a text to identify core and supporting ideas, key terms, and connections or implied links between ideas while making detailed notes (Lauritzen, 2021). Lastly, writers summarize their readings into the main points by using their own words to extract the meaning and deconstruct reaction papers into meaningful parts. As such, writers should avoid bias in a critical response essay because it undermines the objectivity and credibility of the entire analysis, and, before writing a paper, they should ask themselves the next minor guiding questions:

  • What is the author’s background?
  • What is the purpose of the source?
  • Who is the intended audience?
  • What is the main argument or thesis?
  • What evidence does the author use to support their argument?
  • How does the source fit into the broader context?
  • What assumptions does the author make?
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of the source?
  • How does the author address counterarguments or alternative perspectives?
  • What is the overall impact or significance of the source?

3. Creating a Critical Response

Up to this point, source analysis is a blanket term that represents the entire process of developing a critical response. Mainly, the creation of a reaction paper involves analysis, interpretation, and synthesis, which occur as distinct activities (Lauritzen, 2021). In this case, students analyze their readings by breaking down texts into elements with distilled meanings and obvious links to a thesis statement. During analysis, writers may develop minor guiding questions under first and second guiding questions, which are discipline-specific. Then, learners focus on interpretations of elements to determine their significance to an assigned text as a whole, possible meanings, and assumptions under which they may exist (Lauritzen, 2021). Finally, they create connections through the lens of relevant pre-existing knowledge, which represents a version of the element’s interconnection that they perceive to be an accurate depiction of a text. In turn, the length of a critical response essay varies by academic level and the specific requirements of the course or instructor. Here are general guidelines for the length of critical response essays at different academic levels:

High School

  • Pages: 2-4 pages
  • Words: 500-1,000 words

College (Undergraduate)

  • Pages: 3-5 pages
  • Words: 750-1,500 words

University (Upper Undergraduate)

  • Pages: 5-8 pages
  • Words: 1,500-2,500 words


  • Pages: 8-12 pages
  • Words: 2,500-4,000 words


  • Pages: 12-20 pages
  • Words: 4,000-8,000 words

Critical Response Essay Format

IntroductionIntroduce the work under analysis with its title and author, including a brief summary in 1-2 sentences, to provide further context.In a well-known novel “To Kill a Mockingbird,” Harper Lee explores sensitive themes of racial injustice among people and their moral growth.
Thesis StatementPresent your main argument or perspective on the work.Lee uses Atticus Finch as one of the central characters to highlight the pervasive racial injustices of the American South.
Summary of the WorkProvide a concise summary of the work, focusing on key points relevant to your analysis.The novel presents the main character of Scout Finch, a young girl, as she grows up in a racially divided town and witnesses that her father defends a Black man accused of rape.
Analysis: ThemeDiscuss the main themes of the work and how they are developed.The theme of racial injustice is central to the novel, and it is illustrated through the trial of Tom Robinson.
Analysis: CharactersExamine the main characters and their development.Atticus Finch embodies moral integrity, serving as a role model for his children and the community.
Analysis: TechniquesAnalyze some literary techniques used by the author (e.g., symbolism, imagery, narrative style).Lee uses symbolism, such as the ‘mockingbird,’ to represent innocence and the destruction caused by evil.
Personal ReflectionReflect on your personal response to the work and explain how it resonated with you and why.The novel’s portrayal of justice and morality deeply impacted me, prompting me to reflect on my own beliefs.
Supporting EvidenceProvide specific examples and quotes from the work or other credible sources to support your analysis and reflections.Finch says, “You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view… .”
ConclusionSummarize your main points, restate your thesis, and provide final thoughts on the work’s significance.Through its strong themes and compelling characters, Lee’s “To Kill a Mockingbird” remains an outstanding example of literature concerning justice and human dignity.

Note: Analysis sections can be added, deleted, or combined with each other in 1 paragraph depending on the type of the source under review and assignment requirements. Other sections must be provided to ensure writers follow the key rules of critical reading criteria.

Critical Response Essay Outline Template

I. Introduction

A. Summary of an article.
B. Thesis statement.

II. Body

A. First body paragraph

  • The idea for the first paragraph.
  • Evidence for the first point from an article.
  • Interpretation of the evidence.

B. Second body paragraph

  • The idea for the second paragraph.
  • Evidence for the second point from an article.
  • Interpretation of the evidence.

C. Third body paragraph

  • The idea for the third paragraph.
  • Evidence for the third point from an article.
  • Interpretation of the evidence.

III. Conclusion

A. Summary of three points that form a body section.
B. Closing remarks.


The presence of a summary in the introduction and an interpretation for each piece of evidence are defining features of a critical response essay. Typically, the introduction, being one of 5 parts of an essay, does not contain a succinct summary of a source that an author uses in body paragraphs (Campbell & Latimer, 2023). In this case, the incorporation of a summary and response in the introduction paragraph provides the audience with specific information concerning the target article. Specifically, such a work differs from other response papers because it emphasizes the provision of reasonable judgments of a text rather than the testing and defense of one’s evaluations or arguments (Wallace & Wray, 2021). In turn, writers do not provide evaluation for their judgments, which implies critical responses may be different but correct if a specific interpretation is reasonable to the audience.

Expanding an Outline Format Into a Critical Response Essay

1. Introduction

The introductory paragraph in a critical response essay consists of two primary sections: a summary of an article and a thesis statement. Firstly, a summary of an article consists of the text’s central argument and the purpose of the presentation of the argument (Davies, 2022). Basically, students should strive to distill the main idea and purpose of the text into a few sentences because the length of the introduction is approximately 10% of the essay’s word count. Then, a summary provides the audience with adequate background information concerning an article, which forms a foundation for announcing the student’s primary idea. In this case, writers may include an additional sentence between a summary and a thesis statement to establish a smooth flow in the opening paragraph (Campbell & Latimer, 2023). However, learners should not quote thesis and purpose statements because it results in a fragmented introduction, which is unappealing to readers and ineffective.

2. Body

  • All body paragraphs have in a critical response essay four main elements: the writer’s idea, meaningful evidence from a reading text, interpretation of the evidence, and a concluding statement.

A. Writer’s Idea

The writer’s idea for a paragraph appears in the first sentence of a paragraph, which is a topic sentence. For example, if students know how to write a topic sentence, they present readers with a complete and distinct idea that proves or supports a thesis statement (Davies, 2022). In this case, authors should carefully word their topic sentences to ensure there is no unnecessary generalization or spillovers of ideas from other paragraphs. Notably, all the topic sentences in the body of a critical response essay share a logical relationship that allows the audience to easily follow the development of the central idea of a paper.

B. Evidence

Students should provide evidence that supports the idea they propose in the topic sentence. Basically, the evidence for all body paragraphs is the product of critical reading of an article, which allows writers to identify meaningful portions of a text (Wallace & Wray, 2021). During the presentation of evidence, learners should ascertain that the contextual meaning of paraphrases or quotations is not lost because such a strategy will harm interpretations that follow after it. In turn, critical response essays must not contain lengthy or numerous quotations unless the meaning or intended effect of a quotation is not replicable upon paraphrasing.

C. Interpretation

Interpretation segments of paragraphs allow writers to explain the significance of the evidence to the topic sentence. In a critical response essay, the interpretation is the equivalent of an author revealing the possible assumptions behind a text paraphrase and commenting on whether or not he or she finds them reasonable (Campbell & Latimer, 2023). Moreover, students make inferences concerning their meaning in the context of the entire narrative and its relation to the paragraph’s idea. In turn, learners should refrain from reading too much into a piece of evidence because it may result in false or unreasonable inferences.

D. Concluding Sentence

The concluding statement is the final sentence of any paragraph. In this case, the primary role of the concluding sentence is to emphasize the link between the topic sentence, evidence, interpretation, and the paper’s central idea (Davies, 2022). Besides, the concluding statement should not contain an in-text citation because it does not introduce new evidence to support the topic sentence. Therefore, authors use concluding sentences to maintain the unity between body paragraphs and a critical response essay in its entirety.

3. Conclusion

The conclusion comprises three core elements: a restatement of a thesis statement, a summary of the main points that writers present in body paragraphs, and closing remarks. In particular, the first sentence of the conclusion draws the attention of the audience to the central idea, which an author proposes in a thesis statement (Campbell & Latimer, 2023). Then, students review the main points of their papers to demonstrate that written arguments in body paragraphs adequately support a thesis statement. Moreover, writers should summarize the main points of a paper in the same order they appear in the main part and guarantee logical patterns in the body are readily discernible in summary. Finally, learners make their closing remarks, which creates a sense of wholesomeness in a critical response essay or ties a paper to a larger relevant discourse.

Writing Steps of a Critical Response Essay

Step 1: Pre-Writing

A. Analysis of Writing Situation

Objective. Before a student begins writing a critical response essay, he or she must identify the main reason for communication to the audience by using a formal essay format. Basically, the primary purposes of writing reaction papers are explanation and persuasion, and it is not uncommon for two objectives to overlap (Davies, 2022). However, one of the purposes is usually dominant, which implies it plays a crucial role in the wording, evidence selection, and perspective on a topic. In turn, students should establish their purposes in the early stages of the writing process because the purpose has a significant effect on the essay writing approach. Beginning a critical response essay correctly also effectively sets an appropriate tone and provides a clear direction for the whole analysis (Fort, 1971). All opening sentences must introduce the subject, set the context, and hint at the writer’s perspective or main argument. Here are ten examples of starting sentences:

  • The famous narrative of [Title] by [Author] shows [main theme], revealing [author’s message or argument].
  • In [Title], [Author] masterfully employs [literary device] to explore [theme or issue], prompting readers to consider [related question or implication].
  • The powerful depiction of [subject] in [Title] by [Author] challenges conventional views on [topic], offering a new perspective on [specific aspect].
  • Through [Title], [Author] presents a compelling argument about [issue], using [specific elements] to underscore [main point or message].
  • The thought-provoking themes of [Title] by [Author] allow readers to critically assess [related topic or issue], shedding light on [specific aspect].
  • In [Title], [Author] explores the complexities of [subject], using [specific technique] to highlight [main idea or argument].
  • The evocative imagery in [Title] by [Author] serves to illustrate [theme], encouraging readers to reflect on [related issue or question].
  • By examining [specific aspect] in [Title], [Author] effectively critiques [related issue], providing valuable insights into [main point].
  • The dynamic characters and intricate plot of [Title] by [Author] offer a rich exploration of [theme], challenging readers to think critically about [related topic].
  • In [Title], [Author] uses [specific technique] to convey [main idea], ultimately arguing that [related point or implication].

Audience. Students should establish a good understanding of the audience’s expectations, characteristics, attitudes, and knowledge in anticipation of the writing process. Basically, learning the audience’s expectations enables authors to meet the organizational demands, ‘burden of proof,’ and styling requirements (Lauritzen, 2021). In college writing, it is the norm for all essays to attain academic writing standards. Then, the interaction between characteristics and attitudes forces students to identify a suitable voice, which is appreciative of the beliefs and values of the audience (Davies, 2022). Lastly, writers must consider the level of knowledge of the audience while starting a critical response essay because it has a direct impact on the context, clarity, and readability of a paper. Consequently, writing a critical response essay for classmates is quite different from a paper that an author presents to a multi-disciplinary audience.

Define a topic. Topic selection is a critical aspect of the prewriting stage to respond. Ideally, assignment instructions play a crucial role in topic selection, especially in higher education institutions. For example, when writing a critical response essay, instructors may choose to provide students with a specific article or general instructions to guide learners in the selection of relevant reading sources (Wallace & Wray, 2021). In this case, students may not have opportunities for independent topic selection in former circumstances. However, by considering the latter assignment conditions, learners may need to identify a narrow topic to use in article selection. Moreover, students should take adequate time to do preliminary research, which gives them a ‘feel’ of the topic, for example, 19th-century literature. Next, writers narrow down the scope of the topic based on their knowledge and interests, for example, short stories by black female writers from the 19th century.

B. Research and Documentation

Find sources. Once a student has a topic, he or she can start the process of identifying an appropriate article. Basically, choosing a good source for writing a critical response essay is much easier when aided with search tools on the web or university repository (Davies, 2022). In this case, learners select keywords or other unique qualities of an article and develop a search filter. Moreover, authors review abstracts or forewords of credible sources to determine their suitability based on their content (Ogbonnaya & Brown, 2023). Besides content, other factors constrain the article selection process: the word count for a critical response essay and a turnaround time. In turn, if an assignment has a fixed length of 500 words and a turnaround time of one week, it is not practical to select a 200-page source despite content suitability.

Content selection. The process of selecting appropriate content from academic sources relies heavily on the purpose of a critical response essay. Basically, students must select evidence that they will include in a paper to support their claims in each paragraph (Wallace & Wray, 2021). However, writers tend to let a source speak through the use of extensive quotations or summaries, which dilutes a synthesis aspect of a critical reaction essay. Instead, learners should take a significant portion of time to identify evidence from reliable sources, which are relevant to the purpose of an essay (Davies, 2022). In turn, a student who is writing a critical response essay to disagree with one or more arguments will select different pieces of evidence as compared to a person who is writing to analyze the overall effectiveness of the work.

Annotated bibliography. An annotated bibliography is vital to the development of a critical response essay because it enables students to document useful information that they encounter during research. During research and documentation stages for a critical response essay, annotated bibliographies contain the main sources for a paper and other sources that contribute to the knowledge base of an author, even though these sources will not appear in reference lists (Wallace & Wray, 2021). Mostly, a critical response paper has only one source. However, an annotated bibliography contains summaries of other sources, which may inform the author’s response through the development of a deep understanding of a topic. In turn, an annotated bibliography is quite useful when an individual is writing a critical response to an article on an unfamiliar topic.

Step 2: Writing a Critical Response Essay

A. Organization

Thesis. A thesis statement sentence is a crucial component of a critical response essay because it presents the student’s purpose, argument, and the conclusion that he or she draws from the textual evidence. In this case, the thesis statement is the response to the thesis question, which an author creates from assignment instructions (Davies, 2022). After completing the research stage, students can develop a tentative thesis statement to act as a starting point for the writing stage. Usually, tentative thesis statements undergo numerous revisions during the writing stage, which is a consequence of the refinement of the main idea during the drafting. In turn, these examples of sentence starters can help writers to craft a strong thesis statement that clearly defines a critical response lens and the main argument or insight:

  • In [Title], [Author] effectively/ineffectively uses [element] to convey [theme or message], prompting readers to … .
  • Through [specific technique or element], [Title] by [Author] offers a compelling critique/endorsement of [issue or theme], illustrating that … .
  • The portrayal of [character/element] in [Title] by [Author] serves as a powerful commentary on [issue or theme] because of … .
  • In [Title], [Author] explores [theme or issue] through [specific technique or narrative], demonstrating … .
  • The [specific element] in [Title] by [Author] highlights the complexities of [theme or issue], suggesting that … .
  • By examining [element or aspect] in [Title], [Author] provides a better insight into [theme or issue], challenging readers to consider…
  • In [Title], [Author] uses [literary device or technique] to address [theme or issue], ultimately arguing … .
  • The narrative structure of [Title] by [Author] effectively/ineffectively conveys [theme or message], encouraging readers to … .
  • Through the lens of [specific perspective], [Title] by [Author] reveals the intricacies of [theme or issue] and suggests that … .
  • In [Title], [Author] employs [specific technique] to critique/celebrate [issue or theme], making a particular situation when … .

Weigh the evidence. Based on the tentative thesis, an author evaluates the relative importance of collected pieces of textual evidence to the central idea. Basically, students should distinguish between general and specific ideas to ascertain that there exists a logical sequence of presentation, which the audience can readily grasp (Wallace & Wray, 2021). Firstly, for writing a critical response essay, learners should identify general ideas and establish specific connections that exist between each general idea and specific details, which support a central claim. Secondly, writers should consider some implications of ideas as they conduct a sorting process and remove evidence that does not fit. Moreover, students fill ‘holes’ that are present due to the lack of adequate supporting evidence to conclude this stage.

Create an outline. An essay outline is a final product of weighing the significance of the evidence in the context of the working thesis statement. In particular, a formal outline is a preferred form of essay structure for a critical response paper because it allows for detailed documentation of ideas while maintaining a clear map of connections (Campbell & Latimer, 2023). During the formation of an outline, students use a systematic scheme of indentation and labeling all the parts of an outline structure. In turn, this arrangement ensures elements that play the same role are readily discernible at a glance, for example, primary essay divisions, secondary divisions, principle supporting points, and specific details.

Drafting. The drafting step involves the conversion of the one-sentence ideas in an outline format into complete paragraphs and, eventually, a critical reaction essay. In this case, there is no fixed approach to writing the first draft. Moreover, students should follow a technique they find effective in overcoming the challenge of starting to write a critical response essay (Davies, 2022). Nonetheless, it is good practice to start writing paragraphs that authors believe are more straightforward to include regardless of specific positions they hold on an outline. In turn, learners should strive to write freely and be open to new ideas despite the use of an outline. During drafting, the conveyance of meaning is much more important than the correctness of the draft.

Step 3: Post-Writing

Individual revision. An individual revision process focuses on the rethinking and rewriting of a critical response essay to improve the meaning and structure of a paper. Essentially, students try to review their papers from a perspective of readers to ensure the level of detail, relationship and arrangement of paragraphs, and the contribution of the minor ideas to the thesis statement attain the desired effect (Campbell & Latimer, 2023). In this case, the use of a checklist improves the effectiveness of individual revision. Moreover, a checklist contains 12 main evaluation categories: assignment, purpose, audience and voice, genre, thesis, organization, development, unity, coherence, title, introduction, and conclusion.

Collaborative revision. Collaborative revision is a revision strategy that covers subconscious oversight that occurs during individual revision. During an individual revision of a critical response essay, writers rely on self-criticism, which is rarely 100% effective because writers hold a bias that their works are of high quality (Wallace & Wray, 2021). Therefore, subjecting an individual’s work to peer review allows students to collect critique from an actual reader who may notice problems that an author may easily overlook. In turn, learners may provide peer reviewers with a checklist to simplify the revision process.

Editing. The editing step requires authors to examine the style, clarity, and correctness of a critical response essay. In particular, students review their papers to ascertain their conformance with the guidelines of formal essay writing and the English language (Davies, 2022). Moreover, sentence fragments, subject-verb agreement, dangling modifiers, incorrect use of punctuation, vague pronoun references, and parallelism are common grammar issues that learners eliminate during editing. Then, writers confirm that their critical reaction essays adhere to referencing style guidelines for citation and formatting, such as the inclusion of a title page, appropriate in-text citation, and proper styling of bibliographic information in the reference list (Wallace & Wray, 2021). In turn, students must proofread a critical response paper repeatedly until they find all errors because such mistakes may divert the audience’s attention from the content of a paper and consider the following criteria to ensure a comprehensive and reflective piece:

  • Clear Thesis Statement: Present a clear and concise thesis statement that reflects your overall response to an assigned text or experience, outlining your main argument or perspective.
  • Personal Connection: Describe your personal connection to the subject matter and explain how the text or experience resonates with your own experiences, feelings, or beliefs.
  • Summary of the Source: Provide a brief summary of the source under analysis you are responding to, highlighting key points relevant to your response.
  • Detailed Analysis: Analyze specific elements of the source that are important to you, including characters, themes, settings, or any other aspects that lead to a strong reaction.
  • Supporting Evidence: Use quotes, examples, or references from the work under review or other credible sources to support your response and personal reflections on the actual content.
  • Emotional and Intellectual Reflection: Balance your emotional reactions with intellectual analysis and reflect on why certain aspects make you feel a particular way and explore any deeper meanings or implications.
  • Organization: Ensure your essay is well-organized, with a clear and strong introduction with a thesis statement, body paragraphs, and a conclusion that ties everything together.
  • Clarity and Coherence: Write clearly and coherently, making sure your ideas flow logically from one point to the next, avoiding ambiguity, and ensure each paragraph transitions smoothly.
  • Personal Voice: Maintain a personal and engaging tone throughout the entire composition, making your writing genuine and authentic.
  • Conclusion: Summarize the main points of your writing and reflect on the overall impact of the source on your thoughts and feelings or discuss any changes in perspective or insights gained.

Example of Writing a Critical Response Essay

Topic: American Capitalism: The New Face of Slavery

I. Sample Introduction

Capitalism is a dominant characteristic of the American economy. In this case, Matthew Desmond’s article “In Order to Understand the Brutality of American Capitalism, You Have to Start on the Plantation” discusses the role of slavery in shaping contemporary business practices. Specifically, the author attempts to convince the audience that the brutality of American capitalism originates from slavery. In turn, Desmond lays a strong but simple foundation for his argument, which ensures that the audience can conceptualize the link between plantation slavery and contemporary American capitalistic practices.

II. Example of Body Paragraphs

A. American Capitalism

Early in the article, Desmond informs readers of the high variability in the manifestation of capitalism in societies, which creates the impression that American capitalism is a choice. For example, Desmond (2019) argues that the brutality of American capitalism is simply one of the possible outcomes of a society built on capitalistic principles because other societies implement the same principles in a manner that is liberating, protective, and democratic. Moreover, Desmond begins his argument by eliminating a popular presumption that exploitation and oppression are unavoidable outcomes of capitalism. In turn, this strategic move to establish this fact is in the introductory section of the article because it invites the audience to rethink the meaning of capitalism. Furthermore, its plants doubt regarding the ‘true’ meaning of capitalism outside the context of American society.

B. Slavery and American’s Economic Growth

After establishing that the perception of capitalism through the lens of American society has some bias, Desmond proceeds to provide detailed evidence to explain the attempt to camouflage the obvious link between slavery and America’s economic growth. For instance, Desmond (2019) notes the role of Alfred Chandler’s book, The Visible Hand, and Caitlin Rosenthal’s book, Accounting for Slavery, in breaking the link between management practices in plantations and modern corporations by suggesting that the current business practices are a consequence of the 19th-century railroad industry. In this case, Desmond uses this evidence to make a logical appeal to the audience, which makes his argument more convincing because he explains the reason behind the exclusion of slavery in the discourse on modern industry. As a result, Desmond dismisses one of the main counterarguments against his central argument, which increases his persuasive power.

C. Input vs. Output Dynamic

Desmond emphasizes the link between slavery and American capitalism to readers by using the simple input vs. output dynamic throughout the article. For example, Desmond (2019) compares the Plantation Record and Account Book to the heavy digital surveillance techniques in modern workplaces because they collect data, which the employers use to maximize productivity while minimizing inputs. In particular, the comparison reveals that employers did not stop the practice of reducing laborers into units of production with fixed productivity thresholds. Moreover, the constant repetition of the theme of low input and high output dominates the body paragraphs, which makes it nearly impossible for readers to lose sight of the link between slavery and business practices under American capitalism. In turn, the simplification of the underlying logic in Desmond’s argument ensures its clarity to the audience.

III. Sample Conclusion

Desmond carefully plans the presentation of his argument to the audience, which allows readers to follow the ideas easily. In particular, the author starts with a call for readers to set aside any presumptions concerning capitalism and its origin. Then, Desmond provides the audience with an alternative narrative with support from seminal texts in slavery and economics. On the whole, Desmond manages to convince the audience that the American capitalistic society is merely a replica rather than an aberration of slavery.

Citing Sources in a Critical Response Essay

A critical response essay contains specific thoughts of the article’s author and direct words of the text’s author. In this case, students must conduct proper documentation to ensure readers can distinguish between these two types of ‘voices’ (Wallace & Wray, 2021). Moreover, documentation prevents incidents of plagiarism. Usually, instructors mention a referencing technique that students should use while writing a critical response paper. However, if assignment instructions do not identify a specific documentation style, writers should use a referencing technique that is acceptable for scholarly writing in their disciplines.


In-text citation:

  • Parenthetical: (Desmond, 2019).
  • Narrative: Desmond (2019).


  • Desmond, M. (2019, August 12). In order to understand the brutality of American capitalism, you have to start on the plantation. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/08/14/magazine/slavery-capitalism.html


In-text citation:

  • Parenthetical: (Desmond par. 1).
  • Narrative: Desmond argues . . . (par. 1).

Works Cited:

  • Desmond, Matthew. “In Order to Understand the Brutality of American Capitalism, You Have to Start on the Plantation.” New York Times, 14 Aug. 2019, www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/08/14/magazine/slavery-capitalism.html.

Harvard Referencing

In-text citation:

  • Parenthetical: (Desmond 2019).
  • Narrative: Desmond (2019).

Reference List:

  • Desmond, M 2019, ‘In order to understand the brutality of American capitalism, you have to start on the plantation,’ New York Times. Available from: <https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/08/14/magazine/slavery-capitalism.html>. [06 June 2024].


In-text citation (footnote):

  • 1. Matthew Desmond, “In Order to Understand the Brutality of American Capitalism, You Have to Start on the Plantation,” New York Times, August 14, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/08/14/magazine/slavery-capitalism.html.


  • Desmond, Matthew. “In Order to Understand the Brutality of American Capitalism, You Have to Start on the Plantation.” New York Times. August 14, 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/08/14/magazine/slavery-capitalism.html.

Final Provisions on a Critical Response Essay

  • Adequate reading is a precursor for writing an effective critical response essay.
  • Students must conduct adequate research on a topic to develop a proper understanding of a theme, even if only one article appears on the reference list.
  • Notetaking or annotation is a good practice that aids students in extracting meaning from an article.
  • Writers should plan for all activities in the writing process to ascertain they have adequate time to move through all the stages.
  • An outline is an organizational tool, which learners must use to establish the sequence of ideas in such a paper.
  • The purpose of a critical response essay has a significant impact on the selection of evidence and the arrangement of body paragraphs.
  • Students should prioritize revision and editing, which represent opportunities to refine the content of composition and remove mechanical issues.
  • Collaborative and individual revision are equally important because they play different roles in the writing of a good paper.
  • Evidence selection is dependent on the purpose and thesis statement of a critical response essay.


Campbell, K. H., & Latimer, K. (2023). Beyond the five-paragraph essay. Routledge.

Davies, M. (2022). Writing critical reviews: A step-by-step guide. In Study skills for international postgraduates (pp. 194–207). Bloomsbury. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312965969

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